High DDT resistance without apparent association to kdr and Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) gene mutations in Aedes aegypti population at hotel compounds in Zanzibar

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Global efforts to control Aedes mosquito-transmitted pathogens still rely heavily on insecticides. However, available information on vector resistance is mainly restricted to mosquito populations located in residential and public areas, whereas commercial settings, such as hotels are overlooked. This may obscure the real magnitude of the insecticide resistance problem and lead to ineffective vector control and resistance management. We investigated the profile of insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes occurring at selected hotel compounds on Zanzibar Island. At least 100 adults Ae. aegypti females from larvae collected at four hotel compounds were exposed to papers impregnated with discriminant concentrations of DDT (4%), permethrin (0.75%), 0.05 deltamethrin (0.05%), propoxur (0.1%) and bendiocarb (0.1%) to determine their susceptibility profile. Allele-specific qPCR and sequencing analysis were applied to determine the possible association between observed resistance and presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (VGSC) linked to DDT/pyrethroid cross-resistance. Additionally, we explored the possible involvement of Glutathione-S-Transferase gene (GSTe2) mutations for the observed resistance profile. In vivo resistance bioassay indicated that Ae. aegypti at studied sites were highly resistant to DDT, mortality rate ranged from 26.3% to 55.3% and, moderately resistant to deltamethrin with a mortality rate between 79% to and 100%. However, genotyping of kdr mutations affecting the voltage-gated sodium channel only showed a low frequency of the V1016G mutation (n = 5; 0.97%). Moreover, for GSTe2, seven non-synonymous SNPs were detected (L111S, C115F, P117S, E132A, I150V, E178A and A198E) across two distinct haplotypes, but none of these were significantly associated with the observed resistance to DDT. Our findings suggest that cross-resistance to DDT/deltamethrin at hotel compounds in Zanzibar is not primarily mediated by mutations in VGSC. Moreover, the role of identified GSTe2 mutations in the resistance against DDT remains inconclusive. We encourage further studies to investigate the role of other potential insecticide resistance markers.

TidsskriftPLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Udgave nummer5
Antal sider17
StatusUdgivet - 2022

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