A predictive paradigm for COVID-19 prognosis based on the longitudinal measure of biomarkers

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  • Xin Chen
  • Wei Gao
  • Jie Li
  • Dongfang You
  • Zhaolei Yu
  • Mingzhi Zhang
  • Fang Shao
  • Yongyue Wei
  • Ruyang Zhang
  • Lange, Theis
  • Qianghu Wang
  • Feng Chen
  • Xiang Lu
  • Yang Zhao

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging, rapidly evolving crisis, and the ability to predict prognosis for individual COVID-19 patient is important for guiding treatment. Laboratory examinations were repeatedly measured during hospitalization for COVID-19 patients, which provide the possibility for the individualized early prediction of prognosis. However, previous studies mainly focused on risk prediction based on laboratory measurements at one time point, ignoring disease progression and changes of biomarkers over time. By using historical regression trees (HTREEs), a novel machine learning method, and joint modeling technique, we modeled the longitudinal trajectories of laboratory biomarkers and made dynamically predictions on individual prognosis for 1997 COVID-19 patients. In the discovery phase, based on 358 COVID-19 patients admitted between 10 January and 18 February 2020 from Tongji Hospital, HTREE model identified a set of important variables including 14 prognostic biomarkers. With the trajectories of those biomarkers through 5-day, 10-day and 15-day, the joint model had a good performance in discriminating the survived and deceased COVID-19 patients (mean AUCs of 88.81, 84.81 and 85.62% for the discovery set). The predictive model was successfully validated in two independent datasets (mean AUCs of 87.61, 87.55 and 87.03% for validation the first dataset including 112 patients, 94.97, 95.78 and 94.63% for the second validation dataset including 1527 patients, respectively). In conclusion, our study identified important biomarkers associated with the prognosis of COVID-19 patients, characterized the time-to-event process and obtained dynamic predictions at the individual level.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBriefings in Bioinformatics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

    Research areas

  • COVID-19, dynamic risk prediction, longitudinal data, time-to-event

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