Long-Term Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Major Depressive Disorder in a Community-Based Urban Cohort
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- Long-Term Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Major Depressive Disorder in a Community-Based Urban Cohort
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BACKGROUND: Previous studies have associated short-term air pollution exposure with depression. Although an animal study showed an association between long-term exposure to particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and depression, epidemiological studies assessing the long-term association are scarce.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the association between long-term PM2.5 exposure and major depressive disorder (MDD).
METHODS: A total of 27,270 participants 15-79 years of age who maintained an address within the same districts in Seoul, Republic of Korea, throughout the entire study period (between 2002 and 2010) and without a previous MDD diagnosis were analyzed. We used three district-specific exposure indices as measures of long-term PM2.5 exposure. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for potential confounding factors and measured at district and individual levels were constructed. We further conducted stratified analyses according to underlying chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
RESULTS: The risk of MDD during the follow-up period (2008-2010) increased with an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 in 2007 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.78], PM2.5 between 2007 and 2010 (HR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.49), and 12-month moving average of PM2.5 until an event or censor (HR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.90). The association between long-term PM2.5 exposure and MDD was greater in participants with underlying chronic diseases than in participants without these diseases.
CONCLUSION: Long-term PM2.5 exposure increased the risk of MDD among the general population. Individuals with underlying chronic diseases are more vulnerable to long-term PM2.5 exposure.
CITATION: Kim KN, Lim YH, Bae HJ, Kim M, Jung K, Hong YC. 2016. Long-term fine particulate matter exposure and major depressive disorder in a community-based urban cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:1547-1553; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP192.
|Tidsskrift||Environmental Health Perspectives|
|Status||Udgivet - 2016|