Cotinine concentrations in maternal serum and amniotic fluid during pregnancy and risk of testicular germ cell cancer in the offspring: A prospective nested case-control study
Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift › Tidsskriftartikel › Forskning › fagfællebedømt
Maternal smoking in pregnancy may increase the risk of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) in offspring, but current evidence remains inconclusive. We performed a nested case-control study using cotinine measurements in maternal serum and amniotic fluid as a biomarker for tobacco exposure during pregnancy. A total of 654 males with maternal serum (n = 359, ncases/controls = 71/288) and/or amniotic fluid (n = 295, ncases/controls = 66/229) samples were included. Data on TGCC diagnoses and relevant covariates were derived from nationwide Danish health registries. Cotinine was quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. An adapted cox regression model estimated the risk of TGCC considering active and inactive tobacco use defined according to cotinine concentrations of <, ≥15 ng/ml. Overall, the concentrations of cotinine were comparable in maternal serum and amniotic fluid (medianserum/amniotic fluid: 2.1/2.6 ng/ml). A strong statistically significant correlation was detected in 14 paired samples (Spearman rho: 0.85). Based on maternal serum cotinine concentrations, exposure to active tobacco use was not associated with risk of TGCC in offspring (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.51; 1.52). Similarly, based on amniotic fluid cotinine concentrations, exposure to active tobacco use was not associated with risk of TGCC (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.64; 1.95). However, different risks were observed for seminomas and nonseminomas in both matrices, but none were statistically significant. Our findings did not provide convincing evidence supporting that exposure to tobacco during pregnancy is associated with TGCC.
|Tidsskrift||International Journal of Cancer|
|Status||Udgivet - 2023|
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