Association between early-childhood exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and ADHD symptoms: A prospective cohort study

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningfagfællebedømt


  • Fulltext

    Forlagets udgivne version, 1,2 MB, PDF-dokument

  • Johanna Inhyang Kim
  • Bung-Nyun Kim
  • Young Ah Lee
  • Choong Ho Shin
  • Yun-Chul Hong
  • Lise Dalgaard Døssing
  • Gustav Hildebrandt
  • Lim, Youn-Hee

There is evidence that exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) is associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Previous studies have focused on prenatal exposure to PFAS, and only few studies have examined the associations of early-childhood exposure, especially at low exposure levels. This study explored the association between early-childhood exposure to PFAS and ADHD symptoms later in childhood. In 521 children, we measured the serum levels of six PFAS in peripheral blood at the ages of 2 and 4 years, including perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluornonanoicacid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The ADHD Rating Scale IV (ARS) was utilized to measure ADHD traits at 8 years of age. We explored the relationship between PFAS and ARS scores using Poisson regression models after adjusting for potential confounders. Levels of exposure to individual PFAS and the summed value were divided into quartiles to examine possible nonlinear relationships. All six PFAS exhibited inverted U-shaped curves. Children in the 2nd and 3rd quartile levels of each PFAS showed higher ARS scores than those in the1 st quartile level. Below the 3rd quartile of the summed levels of six PFAS (ΣPFAS), a doubling of the ΣPFAS was associated with an 20.0 % (95 % CI: 9.5 %, 31.5 %) increase in ADHD scores. However, at the age of 4 years, none of the evaluated PFAS exhibited linear or nonlinear associations with the ARS scores. Thus, school-aged children may be vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of exposure to PFAS at age 2 that contribute to ADHD, particularly at low to mid-levels.

TidsskriftThe Science of the Total Environment
Antal sider15
StatusUdgivet - 2023

Bibliografisk note

Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier B.V.

ID: 341259149