Altered Glucagon and GLP-1 Responses to Oral Glucose in Children and Adolescents With Obesity and Insulin Resistance

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CONTEXT: Pediatric obesity is characterized by insulin resistance, yet it remains unclear whether insulin resistance contributes to abnormalities in glucagon and incretin secretion.

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether fasting and stimulated glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP concentrations differ between children and adolescents with obesity and insulin resistance (OIR), obesity and normal insulin sensitivity (OIS), and controls with normal weight (NW).

METHODS: 80 (34 boys) children and adolescents, aged 7-17 years with OIR (n=22), OIS (n=22), and NW (n=36) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test with measurements of serum insulin, plasma glucose, glucagon, total GLP-1, and total GIP. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), single point insulin sensitivity estimator (SPISE), Matsuda index, insulinogenic index (IGI), and oral disposition index (ODI) were calculated.

RESULTS: Fasting concentrations of glucagon and GLP-1 were higher in the OIR-group, with no significant differences for GIP. The OIR-group had higher glucagon total area under the curve (tAUC0-120) and lower GLP-1 incremental AUC (iAUC0-120), with no significant differences for GIP iAUC0-120. Higher fasting glucagon was associated with higher HOMA-IR, lower Matsuda index, lower SPISE, higher IGI, and higher plasma alanine transaminase, whereas higher fasting GLP-1 was associated with higher HOMA-IR, lower Matsuda index, and lower ODI. Higher glucagon tAUC0-120 was associated lower SPISE and lower Matsuda index, whereas lower GLP-1 iAUC0-120 was associated with a higher HOMA-IR, lower Matsuda index, and lower ODI.

CONCLUSIONS: The OIR-group had elevated fasting concentrations of glucagon and GLP-1, and higher glucagon, but lower GLP-1 responses during an OGTT compared to the OIS- and NW-groups. In contrast, the OIS-group had similar hormone responses to the NW-group.

TidsskriftJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Udgave nummer6
Sider (fra-til)1590-1600
Antal sider11
StatusUdgivet - 2024

Bibliografisk note

© The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Endocrine Society.

ID: 379060153