Impact of a sodium-reduced bread intervention with and without dietary counseling on sodium intake-a cluster randomized controlled trial among Danish families
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BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Excessive intake of sodium is a dietary risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Currently, intake of sodium is much higher than the recommended level in most western countries, and effective strategies to reduce population sodium intake are lacking. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of two different sodium reduction strategies on the intake of sodium, potassium, and the sodium to potassium ratio among Danish families SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study was a 4-month, single-blinded, cluster randomized controlled trial with a parallel design. Eighty-nine healthy Danish families, with a minimum of one child and one parent (n = 309), were randomly assigned to receive sodium-reduced bread (Intervention A), sodium-reduced bread and dietary counseling (Intervention B) or regular sodium bread (Control). The primary outcome was change in daily sodium intake, measured by 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Secondary outcomes included changes in dietary potassium and the sodium to potassium ratio.
RESULTS: No significant differences in daily sodium intake were observed in the two intervention groups compared with the control. When analyzing the results separately for children and adults, a reduction in dietary sodium of 0.6 g/day (-1.0, -0.2), p = 0.005 occurred among adults in intervention B compared with control.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that providing sodium-reduced bread in combination with dietary counseling is an effective strategy to reduce dietary sodium among adults, but the effect is lacking in children. The study was not able to show significant effects when providing sodium-reduced bread alone in neither adults nor children.
|Tidsskrift||European Journal of Clinical Nutrition|
|Status||Udgivet - sep. 2020|